The Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory

Selected Publications

Kantermann, T., & Eastman, C. I. (2018). Circadian phase, circadian period and chronotype are reproducible over months. Chronobiology international35(2), 280-288.

Crowley, S. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2018). Free‐running circadian period in adolescents and adults. Journal of sleep research, e12678.

Crowley, S. J., Fournier, C. L., & Eastman, C. I. (2018). Late bedtimes prevent circadian phase advances to morning bright light in adolescents. Chronobiology international, 1-5.

Emens, J. S., & Eastman, C. I. (2017). Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder in the Blind. Drugs77(6), 637-650.

Crowley, S. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2017). Human adolescent phase response curves to bright white light. Journal of biological rhythms32(4), 334-344.

Eastman, C. I., Tomaka, V. A., & Crowley, S. J. (2017). Sex and ancestry determine the free-running circadian period. Journal of Sleep Research. early on line


Eastman, C. I. (2016). How to reduce circadian misalignment in rotating shift workers. ChronoPhysiology and Therapy, 6, 41-46.


Eastman, C. I., Tomaka, V. A., & Crowley, S. J. (2016). Circadian rhythms of European and African-Americans after a large delay of sleep as in jet lag and night work. Scientific Reports, 6. 36716.


Crowley, S. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2015). Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration? Sleep medicine, 16(2), 288-297.


Crowley, S. J., Molina, T. A., & Burgess, H. J. (2015). A week in the life of full-time office workers: work day and weekend light exposure in summer and winter.  Applied Ergonomics, 46, 193-200.


Eastman, C. I. (2015). Entraining the free-running circadian clocks of blind people. The Lancet, 386(10005), 1713-1714.


Eastman, C. I., Suh, C., Tomaka, V. A., & Crowley, S. J. (2015).  Circadian rhythm phase shifts and endogenous free-running circadian period differ between African-Americans and European-Americans.  Scientific reports, 5, 8381.


Burgess, H. J., & Molina, T. A. (2014). Home lighting before usual bedtime impacts circadian timing: A field study.  Photochemistry and photobiology, 90(3), 723-726.


Crowley, S. J., Van Reen, E., LeBourgeois, M. K., Acebo, C., Tarokh, L., Seifer, R., Barker, D. H., & Carskadon, M. A. (2014). A longitudinal assessment of sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across human adolescence. PloS one, 9(11), e112199.


Crowley S. J., & Auger R. R. (2013). Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Adolescents.  In Kushida C, editor.  The Encyclopedia of Sleep, Vol. 3. Waltham, MA: Academic Press. pp. 107-112.   


Crowley S. J., & Eastman C. I. (2013).  Light and Melatonin Treatment for Jet Lag.  In Kushida C, editor.  The Encyclopedia of Sleep, Vol. 3. Waltham, MA: Academic Press. pp. 74-80. 


Crowley, S. J. & Eastman, C. I. (2013). Melatonin in the afternoons of a gradually advancing sleep schedule enhances the circadian rhythm phase advance. Psychopharmacology, 225(4), 825-837.


Gradisar, M., & Crowley, S. J. (2013).  Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder in Youth. Current opinion in psychiatry, 26(6), 580.


Reutrakul, S., Hood, M. M., Crowley, S. J., Morgan, M. K., Teodori, M., Knutson, K. L., & Van Cauter, E. (2013).  Chronotype is Independently Associated with Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes care, 36(9), 2523-2529. 


Crowley S. J., Acebo C., & Carskadon, M. A. (2012) .  Human puberty:  salivary melatonin profiles in constant conditions.  Developmental psychobiology, 54(4), 468-473.


Eastman, C. I., Molina, T. A., Dziepak, M. E. & Smith, M. R. (2012). Blacks (African Americans) have shorter free-running circadian periods than Whites (Caucasian Americans). Chronobiology international, 29(8), 1072-1077.


Revell, V.L & Eastman, C.I. (2012). Jet lag and its prevention, Chapter 30, pages 390-401, in Therapy in Sleep Medicine, Editors: Barkoukis, T.J., Matheson, J.K., Ferber, R. & Doghramji, K., Elsevier.


Revell, V. L., Molina, T. A., & Eastman, C. I. (2012). Human phase response curve to intermittent blue light using a commercially available device. The Journal of physiology, 590(19), 4859-4868.


Smith, M. R. & Eastman, C..I. (2012). Shift Work: Health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nat Sci Sleep, 4, 111-132.


Crowley S.J, Kyriakos C.N, and Wolfson A.R. (2011).  Sleep Patterns and Challenges.  In B. Bradford Brown and Mitchell J. Prinstein, editors.   Encyclopedia of Adolescence, Vol. 3.  San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 300-308.


Eastman, C. I. (2011).  How to get a bigger dose of bright light. Sleep, 34(5), 559-560.


Molina, T. A., & Burgess, H. J. (2011).  Calculating the dim light melatonin onset: the impact of threshold and sampling rate.  Chronobiology international, 28(8), 714-718.


Burgess, H. J., Revell, V. L., Molina, T. A., & Eastman C. I. (2010). Human phase response curves to three days of daily melatonin: 0.5 mg versus 3.0 mg. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95(7), 3325-3331.


Crowley S. J., & Carskadon M. A. (2010). Modifications to weekend recovery sleep delay circadian phase in older adolescents.  Chronobiology international, 27(7), 1469-1492.


Canton, J. L., Smith, M. R., Choi, H. S., & Eastman, C. I. (2009). Phase delaying the human circadian clock with a single light pulse and moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode: No influence of iris color. Journal of circadian rhythms, 7(1), 8.


Eastman, C. I., & Burgess, H. J. (2009). How to travel the world without jet lag. Sleep medicine clinics, 4(2), 241-255.


Smith, M. R., Burgess, H. J., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2009). Racial differences in the human endogenous circadian period. PLoS One, 4(6), e6014.


Smith, M. R., & Eastman, C. I. (2009). Phase delaying the human circadian clock with blue-enriched polychromatic light. Chronobiology international, 26(4), 709-725.


Smith, M. R., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2009). A compromise circadian phase position for permanent night work improves mood, fatigue, and performance. Sleep, 32(11), 1481-1489.


Smith, M. R., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2009). Practical interventions to promote circadian adaptation to permanent night shift work: study 4. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 24(2), 161-172.


Smith, M. R., Revell, V. L., & Eastman, C. I. (2009). Phase advancing the human circadian clock with blue-enriched polychromatic light. Sleep medicine, 10(3), 287-294.


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2008). Human tau in an ultradian light-dark cycle. Journal of biological rhythms, 23(4), 374-376.


Burgess, H. J., Revell, V. L., & Eastman, C. I. (2008). A three pulse phase response curve to three milligrams of melatonin in humans. The Journal of physiology, 586(2), 639-647.


Smith, M. R., & Eastman, C. I. (2008). Night shift performance is improved by a compromise circadian phase position: Study 3. Circadian phase after 7 night shifts with an intervening weekend off. Sleep, 31(12), 1639-1645.


Smith, M. R,, Cullnan, E. E., & Eastman, C. I. (2008). Shaping the light/dark pattern for circadian adaptation to night shift work. Physiology & behavior, 95(3), 449-456.


Crowley S. J., Acebo C., and Carskadon M. A. (2007).  Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence.  Sleep medicine, 8(6), 602-612.


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2006). A late wake time phase delays the human dim light melatonin rhythm. Neuroscience letters, 395(3), 191-195.


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2006). Short nights reduce light-induced circadian phase delays in humans. Sleep, 29(1), 25.


Crowley S. J., Acebo C., Fallone G., & Carskadon M. A. (2006). Estimating Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) phase in adolescents using summer or school-year sleep/wake schedules.  Sleep, 29(12), 1632.


Lee, C., Smith, M. R., & Eastman, C. I. (2006). A compromise phase position for permanent night shift workers: Circadian phase after two night shifts with scheduled sleep and light/dark exposure. Chronobiology international, 23(4), 859-875.


Revell, V. R., Burgess, H. J., Gazda, C. J., Smith, M. R., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2006). Advancing human circadian rhythms with afternoon melatonin and morning intermittent bright light. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(1), 54-59.


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2005). Rapid Communication: Short nights attenuate light-induced circadian phase advances in humans.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(8), 4437-4440. 


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2005). Short nights attenuate light-induced circadian phase advances in humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(8), 4437-4440.


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2005). The dim light melatonin onset following fixed and free sleep schedules. Journal of sleep research, 14(3), 229-237.


Eastman, C. I., Gazda, C. J., Burgess, H. J., Crowley, S. J., & Fogg, L. F. (2005). Advancing circadian rhythms before eastward flight: A strategy to prevent or reduce jet lag. Sleep, 28(1), 33.


Revell, V. L., & Eastman, C. I. (2005). How to trick Mother Nature into letting you fly around or stay up all night. Journal of biological rhythms, 20(4), 353-365.


Revell, V. L., Kim, H., Tseng, C. Y., Crowley, S. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2005). Circadian phase determined from melatonin profiles is reproducible after 1 wk in subjects who sleep later on weekends. Journal of pineal research, 39(2), 195-200.


Smith, M. R., Lee, C., Crowley, S. J., Fogg, L. F. & Eastman, C. I. (2005). Morning melatonin has limited benefit as a soporific for daytime sleep after night work. Chronobiology international, 22(5), 873-888.


Burgess, H. J., & Eastman, C. I. (2004). Early versus late bedtimes phase shift the human dim light melatonin rhythm despite a fixed morning lights on time. Neuroscience letters, 356(2), 115-118.


Burgess, H. J., Fogg, L. F., Young, M. Y., & Eastman, C. I. (2004). Bright light therapy for winter depression - Is phase advancing beneficial? Chronobiology international, 21(4-5), 759-775.


Crowley, S. J., Lee, C., Tseng, C. Y., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2004). Complete or partial circadian re-entrainment improves performance, alertness, and mood during night-shift work. Sleep, 27, 1077-1088.


Burgess, H. J., Crowley, S. J., Gazda, C. J., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2003). Preflight adjustment to eastward travel: 3 days of advancing sleep with and without morning bright light. Journal of biological rhythms, 18(4), 318-328.


Crowley, S. J., Lee, C., Tseng, C. Y., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2003). Combinations of bright light, scheduled dark, sunglasses, and melatonin to facilitate circadian entrainment to night shift work. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 18(6), 513-523.


Wolfson A. R., Crowley S. J., Anwer U., & Bassett J. L. (2003). Changes in Sleep Patterns and Depressive Symptoms in First-Time Mothers: Last trimester to one-year postpartum. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1(1): 54-67.


Burgess, H. J., Sharkey, K. M., & Eastman, C. I. (2002). Bright light, dark and melatonin can promote circadian adaptation in night shift workers. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6(5), 407-420.


Hébert, M., Martin, S. K., Lee C., & Eastman, C. I. (2002). The effects of prior light history on the suppression of melatonin by light in humans. Journal of pineal research, 33(4), 198-203.


Martin, S. K., & Eastman, C. I. (2002). Sleep logs of young adults with self-selected sleep times predict the dim light melatonin onset. Chronobiology International, 19: 695-707. 


Sharkey, K. M., & Eastman, C. I. (2002). Melatonin phase shifts human circadian rhythms in a placebo-controlled simulated night-work study. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 282(2), R454-R463.


Eastman, C.I. (2001). Is bright-light therapy a placebo? In T. Partonen & A. Magnusson (Eds.), Seasonal Affective Disorder: Practice and Research, Oxford University Press, New York, p 103-112.


Sharkey, K. M., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2001). Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work. Journal of sleep research, 10(3), 181-192


Baehr, E. K., Revelle, W., & Eastman, C. I. (2000). Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: with an emphasis on morningness-eveningness. Journal of sleep research, 9(2), 117-127. 


Baehr, E. K., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (1999). Intermittent bright light and exercise to entrain human circadian rhythms to night work. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 277(6), R1598-R1604.


Eastman, C. I., & Martin, S. K. (1999). How to use light and dark to produce circadian adaptation to night shift work. Annals of Medicine, 31: 87-98.


Eastman, C. I., Young, M. A., Fogg, L. F., Liu, L., & Meaden, P. M. (1998). Bright light treatment of winter depression: A placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55: 883-889. 


Martin, S. K., & Eastman, C. I. (1998). Medium-intensity light produces circadian rhythm adaptation to simulated night-shift work. Sleep, 21, 154-165.


Mitchell, P. J., Hoese, E. K., Liu, L., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (1997). Conflicting bright light exposure during night shifts impedes circadian adaptation. Journal of biological rhythms, 12(1), 5-15


Stewart, K.T., & Eastman, C.I. (1996). The light stuff: Shiftwork, circadian rhythms, and manned spaceflight. In: M.F. Holick & E.G. Jung (Ed.), Biologic Effects of Light 1995, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, 340-347.


Eastman, C. I., Boulos, Z., Terman, M., Campbell, S. S., Dijk, D. J., & Lewy, A. J. (1995). Light treatment for sleep disorders: consensus report. VI. Shift work. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 10(2), 157-164.


Eastman, C. I., Liu, L., & Fogg, L. F. (1995). Circadian rhythm adaptation to stimulated night shift work: effect of nocturnal bright light duration. Sleep, 18, 399-407.


Kattapong, K. R., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (1995). Effect of sex, menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on circadian temperature rhythms. Chronobiology International, 12, 257-266.


Stewart, K. T., Hayes, B. C., & Eastman, C. I. (1995). Light treatment for NASA shiftworkers. Chronobiology International, 12, 141-151.


Eastman, C. I., Stewart, K. T., Mahoney, M. P., Liu, L., & Fogg, L. F. (1994). Dark goggles and bright light improve circadian rhythm adaptation to night shift work. Sleep. 17: 535-543.


Eastman, C. I. (1992). High intensity light for circadian adaptation to a 12-hr shift of the sleep schedule. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 263(2), R428-R436.


Eastman, C. (1990). Circadian rhythms and bright light: Recommendations for shift work. Work & Stress. 4:245-260.


Eastman, C. (1990). Natural summer and winter sunlight exposure patterns in seasonal affective disorder. Physiology & behavior, 48(5), 611-616


Eastman, C. (1990). What the placebo literature can tell us about light therapy for SAD. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 26:495-504.


Eastman, C. I., & Miescke, K. (1990). Entrainment of circadian rhythms with 26-hr bright light and sleep-wake schedules. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 259(6), R1189-R1197.


Eastman, C. I. (1987). Bright light in work-sleep schedules for shift workers: application of circadian rhythm principles. In Temporal disorder in human oscillatory systems (pp. 176-185). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


Eastman, C. (1987). The circadian rhythm of temperature in humans during a 26-hour sleep-wake schedule. Physiology & behavior, 40(1), 17-23


Eastman, C. (1984). Are separate "temperature" and "activity" oscillators necessary to explain the phenomena of human circadian rhythms?In: M.C. Moore-Ede & C.A. Czeisler (Ed.), Mathematical Models of the Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycle. Raven Press, New York, p. 81-103.


Eastman, C. I., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1983). Circadian temperature and wake rhythms of rats exposed to prolonged continuous illumination. Physiology & Behavior, 31(4), 417-427

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